UNIX in a Nutshell: System V Edition

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Previous: 3.3 Shell FlavorsChapter 3
The UNIX Shell: An Overview
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3.4 Common Features

The table below is a sampling of features that are common to the Bourne, Korn, and C shells. Note that the Korn shell is an enhanced version of the Bourne shell; therefore, the Korn shell includes all features of the Bourne shell, plus some others. The commands bg, fg, jobs, stop, and suspend are available only on systems that support job control.

>Redirect output.
>>Append to file.
<Redirect input.
<<"Here" document (redirect input).
|Pipe output.
&Run process in background.
;Separate commands on same line.
*Match any character(s) in filename.
?Match single character in filename.
[ ]Match any characters enclosed.
( )Execute in subshell.
` `Substitute output of enclosed command.
" "Partial quote (allows variable and command expansion).
' 'Full quote (no expansion).
\Quote following character.
$varUse value for variable.
$$Process id.
$0Command name.
$nnth argument (0<n<9).
$*All arguments as a simple word.
#Begin comment.
bgBackground execution.
breakBreak from loop statements.
cdChange directories
continueResume a program loop.
echoDisplay output.
evalEvaluate arguments.
execExecute a new shell.
fgForeground execution.
jobsShow active jobs.
killTerminate running jobs.
newgrpChange to a new group.
shiftShift positional parameters.
stopSuspend a background job.
suspendSuspend a foreground job.
timeTime a command.
umaskSet or list file permissions.
unsetErase variable or function definitions.
waitWait for a background job to finish.

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3.3 Shell FlavorsBook Index3.5 Differing Features

The UNIX CD Bookshelf NavigationThe UNIX CD BookshelfUNIX Power ToolsUNIX in a NutshellLearning the vi Editorsed & awkLearning the Korn ShellLearning the UNIX Operating System